|The relationship between |
Arousal and Performance
The theory was devised by Hull in 1943. Hull thought that high levels of arousal, such as in competition, would intensify the dominant response and so increasing the quality of performance.
This is only half true though because for an expert the dominant response is likely to be habitual and the correct response and so the theory is proved correct as the quality of performance is increased.
However for a beginner, the dominant response may be incorrect or inaccurate and so a higher level of arousal may lead to a deterioration in performance so the theory is proved wrong.
In 1968 Spence and Spence adapted the theory and tried to quantify its principles. they proposed a equation which described the relationship between habit strength and drive.
Performance = Habit strength x Drive
P = HD
Drive theory is now considered an inadequate explanation of the relationship between arousal and performance as observation proves that even the most talented and experienced performers suffer a deterioration of performance when arousal reaches a very high level
Even David Beckham has a negative performance after high levels of arousal